By David H. Urmann

The integumentary and circulatory systems have specific functions significant to the human body. The body systems work hand in hand for a person to function normally, healthy and strong.

Integumentary System

The integumentary system is composed of various organs that defend the body from injury or damage. It involves the skin as well as its appendages such as nails, hairs and scales. This system has a wide variety of functions, mainly to protect and cushion the deeper tissue, regulate the temperature and excrete wastes.

In humans, this system additionally gives a vitamin D mixture. It is the biggest organ system. It informs, protects, separates and distinguishes the animal with regard to its surroundings. There are many possible diseases and injuries to the human integumentary system. Possible diseases and injuries include blister, sunburn, rash, infection, skin cancer, athlete’s foot, albinism and acne.



The integumentary system has many roles in homeostasis. The entire body systems work interdependently to sustain the internal conditions necessary for the body to keep normal and healthy. The skin has significant tasks of protecting the body. In addition, the skin acts as the body’s first protection against temperature changes, infections or other challenges to homeostasis.

The primary function include storing vitamin D, water and fat as well as generating vitamin D through exposure to ultraviolet light along with helping excrete waste materials through perspiration. The functions also include protecting the internal organs and tissues of our body as well as protecting the body from dehydration.


The top layer of skin is composed of epithelial cells and its main task is for defense. Structurally, it is made up of ‘keratinized stratified squamous elium’ that consists of 4 different kinds of cells such as melanocytes, keratinocytes, Langerhans’ cells and Merkel cells.

Most of the epidermis is keratinocyte that produces keratin. The keratin is a great protein, which aids in protection. Many dead keratinocytes rub off daily and a new epidermis emerges for approximately 25 up to 45 days. The melanocyte creates melanin, a substance that gives the skin its color.

The epidermis contains different kinds of cells such as squamous cells and basal cells. The squqamous cells flaking cells on the surface of the skin and basal cells are round cells.

The sub dermis is a layer of tissue underneath the dermis. The subdermis is mostly composed of adipose tissue and areolar connective tissue. Its physiological purposes include aiding in the anchoring of the skin, insulation and the storage of energy. The subdermis cushions the underlying body for additional protection against trauma.

Circulatory System

Circulatory system is an organ system, which moves wastes, nutrients and gases from and to the cells in order to help fight viruses or diseases. It also helps stabilize pH and body temperature to maintain homeostasis. The system can be seen as the blood distribution network but several people consider this system as composed of lymphatic system that distributes lymph and cardiovascular system that distributes the blood.

The major components of the human circulatory system are the blood vessels, the heart and the blood. The circulatory system includes the systemic circulation, a loop throughout the rest of the body that provides oxygenated plasma, white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets. The Circulatory System also includes pulmonary circulation, a loop throughout the lungs where blood is oxygenated. The digestive system also works with this system to provide nutrients the system needs to keep the heart pumping.

The two kinds of fluids move throughout the circulatory system are the lymph and heart. The lymph node, lymph vessels and lymph form the lymphatic system. The heart, blood vessels and blood form the cardiovascular system. The lymphatic system and cardiovascular system cooperatively make up the circulatory system.

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